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Responsibilities - and some limits

Condition for expropriations:   "Necessity and public utility" (ref. Constitution PE §70)
Consequences:   The Southern Central Macroregion can build their Apurimac-Ayacucho-Ica railway - if the Macroregion decide.
Alternatively too a commonwealth of Regions /Municipalities along the route - can do it.
- and the regions of Cajamarca, Lambayeque and Piura together can construct a railway fromCelendín to Bayovar - if they want

Infrastructure is everything as connect a country, a city, a society
Infrastructure of a country - any type of infrastructure - is the responsibility of society, and this is to be established by its elected or non-elected authorities.
A society cannot escape from this responsibility by concessions, privatizations or similar 'Neo-Liberal tricks',
because infrastructure is what unite and connect the country - property of the society.

task of the mine company:
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load wagons by silo and hopper
 
loading wagons by frontloader
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simple forms of pure iron
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pellets - or sponge iron
 
unload wagons in the port
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fx. by turning over the whole wagon
 
red - white ensign on the sea
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medium size bulk carrier

A NODE is a point in a infrastructure network - or between two networks
Within a node the owner has the authority to organize as he wants - but in accordance with the laws and rules of society - of course.
A landowner can make his track where he wants over his fields.   A districtal, provincial or regional authority can place its roads, their trams and railroads.   A "macro-region" can do the same.
The mines, who have bought, rented or granted their land, decide within the same plot. In principle they can exploit and sell as they want - and pay the State for what is extracted. A payment in relation of what type of ore is mined - naturally.
All equipment and buildings inside the mine lot is: Decision of the Mining Company. For example: Where to lay down their own RAILS for trains within the land of the mine itself. Where and how to load the wagons. By mobile rolling equipment - or by mechanized fixed installations of silos, hoppers and transportbands etc.
This is NOT the responsibility of society.

The surrounding society
Mining companies - regardless of their country of origin - are and have to be a natural part of society where they work, and they therefore must follow the same rules and common laws of society.
Inside a country the society itself alternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.has to build the infrastructure, which the society needs: in this case the rails for trains - too mine trains. The responsibility of the ENAFER authority will start at the exit gate of the mine, and ENAFER will direct the train on all its network.

Who owns locomotive and wagons IS NOT business of ENAFER.
Nor is ENAFER going to drive these trains. Like trucks and buses on the highways, the trains are privately owned and come with their own driver.
The trains will pay tolls per ton, per train and/or per kilometer - and not for the value of the minerals.
The rule for everyone: That man as pays, he decides - to rent, to buy own train, to create a "United Transport Company" together with other mining companies or simply to hire a professional transport company - - - but all trains technically need to comply with ENAFER standards, just as any truck needs to meet the MTC regulations for transit.
If the final customer of the ore lives in Asia, the delivery of the ore is in Asia. For example: A contract with India to deliver 20 million tons of iron per year. This iron needs to be extracted from a mine in the mountains and then pass through a transport chain and perhaps some processings before being delivered to a port in India.

Processes placed between the mine and its export port.
Surely the mine is going to organize a refining process.
They do this simply because a mine does not want to pay for the transport of tons of earth and stones that have no value. That assumption is valid for any mineral like lead, zinc, copper or iron.
Iron for example is normally sold and transported as pellets or sponge iron = pure FE (ferro). It is the first refining step.
Being a process before export, the refinery (for example a steel plant) is naturally connected to the railway system - somewhere on the way between the mine and its port. The degree of refinement and post-processing: from raw material, to bars, blocks, rods, plates, sheets or tubes, etc. is a matter of the market and its prices.
Pellets explanation, Wikipedia: 'The process of pelletizing combines mixing of the raw material, forming the pellet and a thermal treatment baking the soft raw pellet to hard spheres. The raw material is rolled into a ball, then fired in a kiln or in travelling grate to sinter the particles into a hard sphere'.   There is a notable consumption of energy for the process.

The port and its equipment
Transportation from the mine is by raalternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.il and ends at an export port. The mine decides which port for exportation, because the mine is the owner of the cargo. It is also the responsibility of the mine to organize reception of the mineral ore in the port, and there store it until a mineral bulker can arrive.
That include too a system to empty the wagons and deposit the material in silos. And for this reason the wagons are normally built as tippers which are to be emptied directly down into the store from a position above the silos - or alternatively into a receptor hopper and then lifted by a belt conveyor and dropped into a silo.
Silo storage requires another mechanical system to extract the ore bulk from the silo,for then to pass a shiploader with a capacity of a few thousand tons per hour to be able to load an ore bulker in a few days.

A long journey overseas
Well loaded, the ship will sail for salternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.ome months to cross the sea and reach her destination, where she will unload the ore and return. With distances 15-20,000kM - x2 to return, there are probably a maximum of 4-6 trips per year for each ship.
Klaus Lynge
EUR ING
Peru has 2000 kilometers of coastline and 700,000 square kilometers which is its Maritime Territory = more than 50% of the Peruvian land area. However, Peru DOES NOT HAVE any maritime awareness. In the Peruvian ship roster there are around 30 ships available - and none of them are mineral carriers - and naturally all the 30 ships are occupied with other business.
It is a bit sad situation. Not being able to transport their own products, has as consequence, that Peru (= the Peruvian mines) need to hire foreign carriers (vessels) to make their oversea "delivery".
Fortunately, this situation is foreseen in Law 28,583 - "Law for Reactivation and Promotion of the National Merchant Marine" As a result of the Law, there is the option, that these foreign carriers, who have ships available, can fly their ships with the Peruvian flag, by registering their ships in the Peruvian registry. This transfer will give certain advantages to Peru. Especially if a congress decides to declare minerals from the mines as Peruvian, until delivered to the client abroad - or alternatively until the mineral has obtained some added value by processing in Peru.
It seems worth to compaire with "Jones Act", USA = Promotion and protection of the National Merchant Marine - of USA

cut for A4 paper  
- Electric Trains too means electrificatión -

Trains powered by electricity


Trollybus is flexible in transit
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with its 2 conductors hanging above
 
electric train with one conductor only
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note the pantograph and the many pylons
 
A third rail for power
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located between the rails or on the side
 
The batteries are arriving
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too for freight trains
 
electrification on roads and tracks
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electric Volvo truck - today with battery
 
The Falklands islands - 100 years ago
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wind-powered "trains"

There is no doubt that trains af today are powered by electricity.
They are electric due to their regenerative brakes (power generation)
They are electric because of their stalternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.rong traction - at each wheel
They are electric because of their zero emission of toxic and greenhouse gases - with less damage to the Environment

100 years of experience with electrification of transport
Trains and trams are powered by electricity. The experience exists in a multitude of solutions around the world with all forms and combinations of voltages, frequencies and power systems.
There are many details to study - but in principle there are only 5 systems:
1): - two independent phases - two conductors hanging in the air
2): - one conductor hanging in the air - the other by the rails
3): - a third electrical rail on the side or underground to power the vehicle
4): - a large battery (accumulator) to charge before - and possibly durinandedg the trip
5): - or we simply change all the battery in fixed stations

Heavy trains are called "Heavy Haul"
Electric trains as those from the mines, we have known powered by an overhead conductor. There are more than 100 years of experience. We also know trains operated by batteries (accumulators) but the experience of heavy haul trains with batteries is very scarce. Neither experience with mine railways between high mountains does not exist. This is why we have been in dialogue with locomotive manufacturers, and the only valid remark is that the technology for these trains today is a rapid developing technology - as still not is matured.
Well - we too need some few years to prepare and build a mining railway, while - perhaps - the technology will mature.

Let's get technology proved - by years of use, please
As railway builder I don't like to recommend solutions, that are not solidly verified. I prefer what is known and well demonstrated. Nevertheless sometimes we need to install for test and beforehand calculate with an eventual mistake -
My personal experience as engineer and leader, recommending a new technology not yet 'stable' is, that it is expensive to make experiments and costly to get wrong - but it is NOT necessarily dangerous NOR fatal, because we can always take a step back.   ¿ quite EXPENSIVE?     at least it's not gratis -
In this case I don't like to hang up conductors along all the stretch between Marcona and Apurímac.
The best solution - the most suitable for mining trains between the Andes mountains I see as a combination of overhead conductors partial on the route - supplied with batteries on board the trains.
It is obvious, reducing the extent of an overhead conductor to 20% of railroad length - would be a very welcome reduction in cost and maintenance. And the transport companies keep their own regenerated energy.
Of course we have to discuss this with experienced operators and with the Locomotive producers of the future before deciding.

Fuel - in light of the History
The entire history of the human being has shown problems with the supply of energy during a trip.
The horses have extended their master's mobility - and too they have been able to forage their own pasture along the way.   cool!   A technically almost ideal solution.
Steam engines in ships and trains - have expanded the transport capacity, but have needed their coal and water to continue traveling -

Historically,
for this reason the Falkland Islands were captured by the English empire (before the great canals of Panama and Suez) to create a strategic base to supply their imperial fleets with COAL before passing Cape Horn and beginning a long trip into the Pacific Ocean.
We could imagine that England today does not need the Falkland islands as a coal deposit, and this would give a chance for Argentina to express its interests in a bilateral agreement between 2 countries, without to provoke a new war.
It is better to seduce than to violate, that is what any man and woman knows - too in Argentina.
And everyone has preferred to see the Argentines seduce their chosen one - and not violate her.
What conditions the Argentines now are going to offer to the Malvinas for a future together - what dowry to give the bride ? - that is what we are waiting to know - - -
Are we talking Imperialism, Romance - or maybe Self-determination for the islands ?

An example of another fuel:   The Yavarí ship at Titicaca lake is the oldest iron ship in the world. Yavarí was prepared in England around 1860 and then send as thousands of pieces as were transported on mule back from the Pacific to the highlands, to be assembled on the coast of lake Titicaca. From first, her boiler was fueled by dry manure (llama dropping), because there is no firewood or charcoal in the highlands.
Since 1911 Yavarí has ​​sailed with a Bolinder diesel - and continues to sail to this day.
The arrival of the diesel engine, burning oil in some form, has made itanded easier to supply vehicles for long journeys. This is why there are many mining trains around the world running on this fuel.

TODAY diesel for motors IS NOT an accepted technology in an ecological world   - That's one.
We neither can generate nor regenerate ANY diesel power by lowering minerals from highland.   - That's another.
At last we need to recognize, that Peru is a country where the water is running down all the mountains and totally GRATIS, to a degree that allows us to generate enough electricity to supply all of South America with energy.
In any sense, Peru is a country filled up with "green energy" = inexhaustible energy in abundance.
There is energy from the sun shining in abundance. There is wind power by the current of the wind. And there is his sister the current of the river. There is also geothermal energy available in Aguas Calientes (Hot Water) and there is wave energy throughout the maritime territory. A sea full of energy.
corte para A4 papel  
- A project known many years - and still actual -

Railway Puerto San Juan de Marcona - Andahuaylas

Ref: "Public Tender No. 002-2018-MTC/10"
Note: There are no reason to entangle and complicate the life with many "studies" done by many consultants and paid by many Governments.

Because we don't need more studies: Peru need RESULTS

The truth is, that we have sufficient academic and theoretic studies of this famous mine railway and its port of Marcona.

50 years we have known a route (one among more) to access - to penetrate the mountain range with a railway.
The Canadian project with their study of a railway: "PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY STUDY of THE APURIMAC IRON ORE DEPOSIT, PERU" is known from 1970 - and until now it has brought nothing more than, that all the subsequent studies simply have copied the main points:

    The same route between the mountains - the same old railway technology - the same antiquated thinking.

Neither the Marcona port, as has got its own Law 28521 since 2005. Not one step ahead for its realisation.
But please note, that all discussions in the 'Parlament' from the Toledo time: 'San Juan bay' - or/and - 'San Nicolas bay'? ?? This comparation simply is killed and burried. Nobody dare even think in this, because the San Nicolas mineral port is sacred. It is a Chinese concession.

1970 The construction price of the railway was calculated to 175 millions US-dollars - in that time.
Today we need to multiply the same price with the inflation of 50 years = a factor of 10 - or perhaps 20 -
A more logic alternative is to recalculate, but that have no meaning until someone has taken the fundamental decisions: Which mines to connect, which cities and landscapes to pass, what way to go, number of bridges and tunnels etc.
Simply: What level we intend to give this new infrastructure. (Are we talking about a simpel VW or a luxury Mercedes? ??)

Feasibility versus stratecical investments
- they are only different by the horizon calculated for the pay back
The feasibility we know with certainty, because this is garantized by the mine flow from the concessions:
"Without flow no business - and without business no investment" - and that we don't need go on studying.
This rule apply for mines and too for railways. And because the mines will fight to create their flow to survive - the same flow too will serve as a basic flow for a railway

Of that reason: We don't need more of academic studies as 'feasibility', pre-feasibility etc.
The proposal of PUSAC is change point of view = change model - change procedure - with the aim to escape many errors and gain time by speeding up and advance the process of railway construction in Peru - to benefit of a Peru as need to raise up after the COVID depression.

A new viewpoint (paradigm) for railways for Peru

In Perú we have no railway engineers with experience
The PUSAC proposal is to start "the railway works" looking for 'Know How' abroad - visit, choose and transfer the experience from mine trains as operate in Australia, Brasil, Canada, Sweden - or where it is.
There is no doubt, that the lines - the known corridors - need to be revised by foreign experts according to a modern techmology: Electric trains, 'Heavy Haul' rails, bigger gradients and curves for high speed. A supervision done by esperimented foreign engineers - and transfered to the peruvian engineers
After the technology is chosen and transfered to the peruvians,
after then we can talk about some do-it-yourself construction in a more remote future.
There are much more than civil and mechanical works to do. Within a packet of technology to transfer we too need something of 'administration of railways' and 'comunication' - inclusive 'security' and 'train control'

The proposal imply to send a high commision to see directly and live, what there exist of solutions working every day somewhere in the world - and after that select technology, systems, organization and maintenance of these models - with the clear aim to adapt a copy in the peruvian world.
After that it is possible to go-on with compulsory tenders to carry out what they have decided - not before.
In same as in a restaurant:
First have a look at the menu before to choose
- then eat

New work schedule - to success:
First look and know what is possible today in relation to mine railways
After that choose what we would like for our mines
- and more ahead we will transfer it all to the peruvian reality

Taking into account that a modern train with traction on each axle can withstand climbing up to 8% - and for this reason it can pass mountain ranges by shorter and more direct routes.
Taking into account that today's tnecesitamosrains are electric as can generate and regenerate energy
Taking into account that mining transport today run on 'Heavy Haul' rails as resist a load on each wheel of 20 tons
Taking into account that a railways built for mine trains 'Heavy Haul' too serves and should serve for trains of the civil society
Taking into account that an optimal route passing the mountains politically need a 'social license' from the societies as it intend to pass
Don't forget - if you too want to travel with high speed - then you need to smoothen and tilt any sharp curve
[ img - rail-icon.png ]
The situation in Peru may be the same, as it is in the rest of the world:
With railways constructed for the mines we have the rails
- and those rails too are at disposal for the country and their carrier contractors along all the line - for transport of cargo and for passengers.

OJO:  In all this we are talking railways only as infrastructure.

Rolling material as trains, wagons and locomotives etc. is and ought to be responsability of the transport carriers
In same way the stations: Stations are NOT infrastructure and therefore they ARE NOT responsability of a railway organization as our ENAFER.
The railway only need a platform of 2 meters broadness to make a train-stop - and nothing more.
- and the rest of a station with its buildings, parking ground, bus and taxi terminal, shopping centers, markets, kiosks, waiting room and restrooms, etc.
that is the responsibility of the community to build in that extent they desire.

Pusac web - updated December 2022