The World of Heavy Haul Railways
Outside the political blocks (USA, China, Russia)
there are wery few mine railways as are interesting for a mountain country
The Northern Hemisphere
1): LAPLAND in Sweden and Norway probably have the best model for Peru.
The railway line for transport of iron ore runs between the iron mine in Kiruna and the ports of Narvik in Norway and Luleå in the bottom of the Gulf of Bothnia - crossing the polar circle.
Those trains have a gross weight until 8.660 tons, inclusive the locomotive and are the heaviest in Europa.
The rails resist 16.5 tons each wheel. They use the special SA3 coupler. They are fed electrically by 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz. (as is a mechanical reduction of 50Hz).
Sweden and Norway employ normal gauge of 1.435 mm
General cargo trains in Sweden don't weight more than 3.500 tons - limited by their buffers and couplers.
Maximum power 10,800 kW
Maximum haul 1200 kN (120 tons)
Maximum speed 80 km/h
Note: Trains for heavy haul in general are working on plane areas, buy these trains of Narvik are passing a mountain range, uphill are 10‰ (1%) in loaded train direction.
Note2: Flåmsbana in Norway is a mountain railway line for passengers where 80% of the line holds 5,5% declination.
2): FINLAND together with RUSSIA
The most heavy trains in Finland weights nearly 5.400 tons and are transporting y iron mineral in ‘pellets' from the process plant of Kostomuksha, Rusia. From Kostomuksha they go to Oulu, Finland as units of 60 wagons as measure nearly 880 metres in length. In Finland this trains are hauled by two electric locomotives of the Sr2 class at 25 kV 50 Hz AC while in Russia the locomotives are of diesel - double 2TE116 class.
Because of the restrictions along the line between Oulu and the port of Kokkola (200km against south), the trains are reduced to 30-40 wagons from Oulu.
In general this stretch is operated by electrical locomotives of class Sr1 on the rest of the way. The trains use exclusively Russian rolling stock and are equipped with SA3 couplers. Finland was separated from the Russian Empire 1917 - and its gauge of 1524mm (=5 pies) is a heritage from Russia
The port of Kokkola (Finnish language ) = Karleby (Swedish language) - is placed 200km south of Luleå in Sweden. (the Kiruna ore railway) - and Oulu between the two, against east in the third corner of a 200km triangle.
Trains for bulk in general are limited to 3km of length and up to 20,700 gross tons, but the trains for iron in Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway keep until 30,000 tons. This railway line of 414km is operated by the 'Iron Ore group of Canada' = IOC, as is a consortium between 'Rio Tinto', Mitsubishi and the 'Labrador Iron Ore Royalty Corporation'.
They use the normal gauge of 1.435mm and haul with diesel locomotives.
The railway line is feeding the exportation port of Sept-Iles at the southern coast, at the mouth of St.Lawrence River.
Note: After terminated the mine activity, 200km of the railway line today are property of the original people (First Nations People), and is operated by themselves.